Este curso faz parte do Programa de cursos integrados Mathematics for Machine Learning

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Programa de cursos integrados Mathematics for Machine Learning

Imperial College London

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This course offers a brief introduction to the multivariate calculus required to build many common machine learning techniques. We start at the very beginning with a refresher on the “rise over run” formulation of a slope, before converting this to the formal definition of the gradient of a function. We then start to build up a set of tools for making calculus easier and faster. Next, we learn how to calculate vectors that point up hill on multidimensional surfaces and even put this into action using an interactive game. We take a look at how we can use calculus to build approximations to functions, as well as helping us to quantify how accurate we should expect those approximations to be. We also spend some time talking about where calculus comes up in the training of neural networks, before finally showing you how it is applied in linear regression models. This course is intended to offer an intuitive understanding of calculus, as well as the language necessary to look concepts up yourselves when you get stuck. Hopefully, without going into too much detail, you’ll still come away with the confidence to dive into some more focused machine learning courses in future.

Comece imediatamente e aprenda em seu próprio cronograma.

Redefinir os prazos de acordo com sua programação.

Sugerido: 6 weeks of study, 2-5 hours/week...

Legendas: Inglês, Grego, Espanhol

Linear RegressionVector CalculusMultivariable CalculusGradient Descent

Comece imediatamente e aprenda em seu próprio cronograma.

Redefinir os prazos de acordo com sua programação.

Sugerido: 6 weeks of study, 2-5 hours/week...

Legendas: Inglês, Grego, Espanhol

Semana

1Understanding calculus is central to understanding machine learning!
You can think of calculus as simply a set of tools for analysing the relationship between functions and their inputs. Often, in machine learning, we are trying to find the inputs which enable a function to best match the data.
We start this module from the basics, by recalling what a function is and where we might encounter one. Following this, we talk about the how, when sketching a function on a graph, the slope describes the rate of change of the output with respect to an input. Using this visual intuition we next derive a robust mathematical definition of a derivative, which we then use to differentiate some interesting functions. Finally, by studying a few examples, we develop four handy time saving rules that enable us to speed up differentiation for many common scenarios. ...

10 vídeos (total de (Total 46 mín.) min), 4 leituras, 6 testes

Welcome to Module 1!1min

Functions4min

Rise Over Run4min

Definition of a derivative10min

Differentiation examples & special cases7min

Product rule4min

Chain rule5min

Taming a beast5min

See you next module!39s

About Imperial College & the team5min

How to be successful in this course5min

Grading Policy5min

Additional Readings & Helpful References5min

Matching functions visually20min

Matching the graph of a function to the graph of its derivative20min

Let's differentiate some functions20min

Practicing the product rule20min

Practicing the chain rule20min

Unleashing the toolbox20min

Semana

2Building on the foundations of the previous module, we now generalise our calculus tools to handle multivariable systems. This means we can take a function with multiple inputs and determine the influence of each of them separately. It would not be unusual for a machine learning method to require the analysis of a function with thousands of inputs, so we will also introduce the linear algebra structures necessary for storing the results of our multivariate calculus analysis in an orderly fashion. ...

9 vídeos (total de (Total 41 mín.) min), 5 testes

Variables, constants & context7min

Differentiate with respect to anything4min

The Jacobian5min

Jacobian applied6min

The Sandpit4min

The Hessian5min

Reality is hard4min

See you next module!23s

Practicing partial differentiation20min

Calculating the Jacobian20min

Bigger Jacobians!20min

Calculating Hessians20min

Assessment: Jacobians and Hessians20min

Semana

3Having seen that multivariate calculus is really no more complicated than the univariate case, we now focus on applications of the chain rule. Neural networks are one of the most popular and successful conceptual structures in machine learning. They are build up from a connected web of neurons and inspired by the structure of biological brains. The behaviour of each neuron is influenced by a set of control parameters, each of which needs to be optimised to best fit the data. The multivariate chain rule can be used to calculate the influence of each parameter of the networks, allow them to be updated during training. ...

6 vídeos (total de (Total 19 mín.) min), 4 testes

Multivariate chain rule2min

More multivariate chain rule5min

Simple neural networks5min

More simple neural networks4min

See you next module!34s

Multivariate chain rule exercise20min

Simple Artificial Neural Networks20min

Training Neural Networks25min

Semana

4The Taylor series is a method for re-expressing functions as polynomial series. This approach is the rational behind the use of simple linear approximations to complicated functions. In this module, we will derive the formal expression for the univariate Taylor series and discuss some important consequences of this result relevant to machine learning. Finally, we will discuss the multivariate case and see how the Jacobian and the Hessian come in to play. ...

9 vídeos (total de (Total 41 mín.) min), 5 testes

Building approximate functions3min

Power series3min

Power series derivation9min

Power series details6min

Examples5min

Linearisation5min

Multivariate Taylor6min

See you next module!28s

Matching functions and approximations20min

Applying the Taylor series15min

Taylor series - Special cases10min

2D Taylor series15min

Taylor Series Assessment20min

Semana

5If we want to find the minimum and maximum points of a function then we can use multivariate calculus to do this, say to optimise the parameters (the space) of a function to fit some data. First we’ll do this in one dimension and use the gradient to give us estimates of where the zero points of that function are, and then iterate in the Newton-Raphson method. Then we’ll extend the idea to multiple dimensions by finding the gradient vector, Grad, which is the vector of the Jacobian. This will then let us find our way to the minima and maxima in what is called the gradient descent method. We’ll then take a moment to use Grad to find the minima and maxima along a constraint in the space, which is the Lagrange multipliers method....

4 vídeos (total de (Total 28 mín.) min), 4 testes

Gradient Descent9min

Constrained optimisation8min

See you next module!2min

Newton-Raphson in one dimension20min

Checking Newton-Raphson10min

Lagrange multipliers20min

Optimisation scenarios20min

Semana

6In order to optimise the fitting parameters of a fitting function to the best fit for some data, we need a way to define how good our fit is. This goodness of fit is called chi-squared, which we’ll first apply to fitting a straight line - linear regression. Then we’ll look at how to optimise our fitting function using chi-squared in the general case using the gradient descent method. Finally, we’ll look at how to do this easily in Python in just a few lines of code, which will wrap up the course....

4 vídeos (total de (Total 25 mín.) min), 1 leitura, 3 testes

General non linear least squares7min

Doing least squares regression analysis in practice6min

Wrap up of this course48s

Did you like the course? Let us know!10min

Linear regression25min

Fitting a non-linear function15min

comecei uma nova carreira após concluir estes cursos

consegui um benefício significativo de carreira com este curso

por DP•Nov 26th 2018

Great course to develop some understanding and intuition about the basic concepts used in optimization. Last 2 weeks were a bit on a lower level of quality then the rest in my opinion but still great.

por JT•Nov 13th 2018

Excellent course. I completed this course with no prior knowledge of multivariate calculus and was successful nonetheless. It was challenging and extremely interesting, informative, and well designed.

Imperial College London is a world top ten university with an international reputation for excellence in science, engineering, medicine and business. located in the heart of London. Imperial is a multidisciplinary space for education, research, translation and commercialisation, harnessing science and innovation to tackle global challenges.
Imperial students benefit from a world-leading, inclusive educational experience, rooted in the College’s world-leading research. Our online courses are designed to promote interactivity, learning and the development of core skills, through the use of cutting-edge digital technology....

For a lot of higher level courses in Machine Learning and Data Science, you find you need to freshen up on the basics in mathematics - stuff you may have studied before in school or university, but which was taught in another context, or not very intuitively, such that you struggle to relate it to how it’s used in Computer Science. This specialization aims to bridge that gap, getting you up to speed in the underlying mathematics, building an intuitive understanding, and relating it to Machine Learning and Data Science.
In the first course on Linear Algebra we look at what linear algebra is and how it relates to data. Then we look through what vectors and matrices are and how to work with them.
The second course, Multivariate Calculus, builds on this to look at how to optimize fitting functions to get good fits to data. It starts from introductory calculus and then uses the matrices and vectors from the first course to look at data fitting.
The third course, Dimensionality Reduction with Principal Component Analysis, uses the mathematics from the first two courses to compress high-dimensional data. This course is of intermediate difficulty and will require basic Python and numpy knowledge.
At the end of this specialization you will have gained the prerequisite mathematical knowledge to continue your journey and take more advanced courses in machine learning....

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