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PsychologyGenetic CounselingGeneticsBehavioral Medicine

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Programa - O que você aprenderá com este curso

Semana
1
3 horas para concluir

1

Unit # 1: Course Introduction and OverviewOverview: Unit # 1 provides an overview to the field of human behavioral genetics and to this course. We will begin by discussing the early history of the field and how behavioral genetic research influenced and was influenced by the eugenics movement. Once this historical context has been established, we will define the field of behavioral genetics and use this definition to provide an overview of the course. This week’s lectures will end with two case studies that illustrate the importance of behavioral genetic approaches. The first is the famous John/Joan case, where one member of a monozygotic twin pair was raised as a boy and the other as a girl. The second is the human genetic disorder Phenylketonuria (PKU), which has been recognized as a paradigm of human genetic disease since its discovery in 1934.Unit Objectives: At the end of this unit you should know• The history of the founding of the field of behavioral genetics• What the eugenics movement was and how it impacted psychology and behavioral genetics• What the field of behavioral genetics covers• How the John/Joan case represented the extreme of the “Blank Slate” mentality within psychology• Why Phenylketonuria is considered a public health success and model of human genetic diseaseLecture Modules:A. The Nature-Nurture Debate and Founding of Behavioral GeneticsB. The Eugenics MovementC. What is Behavioral GeneticsD. The John/Joan CaseE. Phenylketonuria (PKU) F. Huntington Disease (Supplemental)

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7 vídeos ((Total 110 mín.)), 3 leituras, 1 teste
7 videos
1B: The Eugenics Movement 15min
1C: What is Behavioral Genetics? 7min
1D: The John/Joan Case 17min
1E: Phenylketonuria (PKU) 15min
1F: Huntington Disease - Supplementary 18min
Unit 1 Office Hours Video 20min
3 leituras
Required Reading #1: Genetics and Human Behaviour: the Ethical Context10min
Required Reading #2: Taboo Genetics10min
Additional resources for Topic #110min
1 exercício prático
Unit 1 Quiz12min
Semana
2
3 horas para concluir

2

In Unit #2 the twin study method will be introduced and general findings from twin studies in psychology and psychiatry will be reviewed. The two types of twins, monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ), will be described and methods for assessing their similarity will be given. We will also look critically at the limitations of the twin study method and discuss alternative research designs, including adoption studies and the study of reared-apart twins. The importance of convergent evidence from multiple research designs will be emphasized.

...
8 vídeos ((Total 144 mín.)), 2 leituras, 1 teste
8 videos
2B: How to Assess Twin Similarity 14min
2C: Findings from Twin Studies 16min
2D: Are Twin Studies Valid? 19min
2E: Adoption Studies: Not by Twins Alone 13min
2F: Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA) 18min
2G: Conversation with Tom Bouchard - Supplementary 19min
Unit 2 Office Hours Video 26min
2 leituras
Required reading: Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart10min
Additional resources for Topic #210min
1 exercício prático
Unit 2 Quiz14min
Semana
3
3 horas para concluir

3

Some of the most contentious issues in behavioral genetics surround the concept of heritability – Is it a meaningful statistic? Can it be accurately estimated in studies on humans? How should it be interpreted? In this unit we will discuss what is meant by heritability and describe some simple biometric (i.e., quantitative genetic) methods used for it estimation. The unit begins with a review of basic Mendelian inheritance and the introduction of some genetic terminology we will begin to use in the course. The ACE model of quantitative inheritance is described and we will discuss how this model is used to analyze twin data. Finally, the important concept of gene-environment interaction is formally introduced. Beginning this week with quantitative genetics and continuing next week with molecular genetics we will be jumping head first into the thicket of human genetic methodology. For some, this material may be more challenging than that which we covered in the first two weeks of this course. These weeks will, however, provide the foundation we will need to investigate in depth behavioral genetic research on schizophrenia and intelligence in weeks 5 and 6. Please make sure to post questions you have to the discussion forums and especially to the office hours forum.

...
7 vídeos ((Total 138 mín.)), 2 leituras, 1 teste
7 videos
3B: Galtonian Inheritance (aka Quantitative Genetics) 19min
3C: How is Heritability Estimated? 22min
3D: What Heritability Is and What It Is Not 12min
3E: Gene-Environment Interaction 21min
3F: Multivariate Approaches - Supplementary 11min
Unit 3 Office Hours Video 30min
2 leituras
Required reading: The Human Genome10min
Additional resources Topic #310min
1 exercício prático
Unit 3 Quiz10min
Semana
4
3 horas para concluir

4

The Human Genome Project (HGP) was begun in 1990 and declared complete in 2003. It has revolutionized our understanding of genetics and will ultimately revolutionize medical practice. In my opinion, every educated citizen should know some basic findings from the HGP. This week’s lectures provide an introduction to molecular biology and the HGP. We will cover topics such as: What is DNA? What is a gene and how are genes structured? In what ways can human genomes differ? What is epigenetics and why do some researchers believe it is very important for understanding behavior? As in previous lectures, I will illustrate some of the basic human genetic phenomena through case studies, in this case ranging from calico cats to the human genetic disorders of Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes. This week’s lectures continue what we began last week: laying the foundation of genetic concepts and processes we will need to consider in some depth genetic research on schizophrenia and intelligence. Some participants in this course already have an extensive background in basic genetics and so will be very knowledgeable about material covered in the initial modules. But I think even these participants will have something to learn when we get to the later modules in the unit covering, e.g., Williams Syndrome, Prader-Willi Syndrome and Angelman Syndrome. For those with a more limited background in genetics, I recognize that the terminology introduced this week may at first seem a bit daunting. But if you stick with it, terms such as SNPs, methylation, exon, copy number variants, etc. which seem foreign now will become consolidated in your vocabulary through repeated use throughout the remaining lectures in this course. There are several learning aids I would encourage you to use. First, we have created a Glossay, which you can link to off the navigation bar on the course website. Second, the Discussion Forums are a wonderful source of help. Other participants can be very helpful in answering your questions and a post in the Office Hours thread will be reviewed by us for response in the weekly office hour video. Finally, we give again online genetics education links in the Other Resources section below.

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10 vídeos ((Total 159 mín.)), 3 leituras, 1 teste
10 videos
4B: What Is a Gene? 9min
4C: Three Surprising Findings From the Human Genome Project 13min
4D: Genetic Variation 20min
4E: Williams Syndrome 11min
4F: The X Chromosome 7min
4G: Prader-Willi & Angelman Syndromes 13min
4H: Genetic Regulation and Epigenetics 21min
4I: Epigenetic Inheritance - Supplementary 20min
Unit 4 Office Hours Video 30min
3 leituras
Required reading #1: Genomic Medicine10min
Required reading #2: Epigenetics10min
Additional resources Topic #410min
1 exercício prático
Unit 4 Quiz 18min
Semana
5
4 horas para concluir

5

Now that we have a foundation in basic biometric and molecular genetics we can begin to look in depth at genetic research for behavioral phenotypes. This week we will focus on schizophrenia. There are several reasons for this focus. First, genetics research has fundamentally changed the way researchers and mental health professionals think about this devastating illness; schizophrenia illustrates the successes as well as the limitations of the genetic approach to a psychiatric illness. Second, research on schizophrenia exemplifies what genetic researchers are finding with most common mental illnesses. Although, for example, the exact chromosomal locations of risk variants and the specific candidate genes implicated certainly vary from one psychiatric illness to the next, the basic features of the genetic architecture appears to be remarkably similar across multiple psychiatric illnesses, at least at this time. So an understanding of the genetics of schizophrenia will bring with it an understanding of much of psychiatric genetics. Before discussing the genetics research, however, I think it useful that we all know at least a little about what schizophrenia is. Thus the first two modules in this unit describe the clinical phenotype and some of its basic epidemiology, information that will no doubt be very familiar to those of you with a background in clinical psychology or psychiatry. Twin and adoption studies helped to establish the heritable nature of schizophrenia (Module C) and characterize the nature of environmental influence (Module D). The current frontier in genetics research on schizophrenia is to identify the specific genetic variants that underlie its heritability. Initial attempts at identifying risk alleles using the positional cloning strategy were generally unsuccessful yet provided key insights into the nature of the disorder (Module E). Very recently, important breakthroughs have been achieved through Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS; Module F) and rare variant analysis (Module G). Although the basic foundation for this course was introduced in Units 1-4 and we strive to minimize our use of jargon, sometimes the technical term is exactly what is needed and we will continue to introduce new terms throughout the remainder of the course. So please make use of the Glossary (linked on the navigation bar). We created it in the hope it would help minimize the impact technical jargon might have on your mastering the lecture material.

...
9 vídeos ((Total 184 mín.)), 2 leituras, 1 teste
9 videos
5B: The Epidemiology of Schizophrenia 15min
5C: Twin and Adoption Studies of Schizophrenia 19min
5D: What We Have Learned About Environmental Risk From Twin and Adoption Studies 16min
5E: Identifying Schizophrenia Risk Alleles - The Positional Cloning Strategy 15min
5F: Identifying schizophrenia risk alleles - The GWAS strategy 21min
5G: Identifying schizophrenia risk alleles – rare variants 20min
5H: Genetics, Race & Ancestry - Supplementary 23min
Unit 5 Office Hours Video 39min
2 leituras
Required reading: A candidate-gene study of schizophrenia10min
Additional resources for Topic #510min
1 exercício prático
Unit 5 Quiz14min
Semana
6
3 horas para concluir

6

If there is an area of psychology that generates more heated debate than behavioral genetics it would be the field of intelligence research. While most of us acknowledge the differences among us in personality and even risk for mental illness, for some of us differences in intelligence seem more difficult to accept. I confess I am not completely sure why this is the case. Maybe it is because of the involvement of early intelligence researchers with the Eugenics Movement. Alternatively, maybe it is because the conclusions reached by some intelligence researchers seem to challenge our long-held beliefs about social equality, especially when those conclusions are biologically grounded. Regardless, intelligence, or as I prefer to call it general cognitive ability (GCA), has been a major focus of behavioral genetic research and we will use it as a prototype of behavioral genetic research on a quantitative psychological trait.As with the previous unit, we will begin with a brief discussion of what psychologists mean by intelligence or GCA. I will not try and review the vast empirical literature on the correlates of GCA; suffice to say that GCA is correlated, not always strongly, with many desirable outcomes including educational attainment, occupational achievement, health, mortality, criminal conviction, etc. Twin and adoption studies of GCA have implicated the importance of both genetic and nonshared as well as shared environmental influences. Behavioral genetic research has helped to identify features of the shared environment that appear to contribute to differences in intelligence, but, unlike with schizophrenia and other mental illnesses, it has been difficult to identify the specific genetic variants that contribute to the heritability of GCA. This unit will end with a discussion of genetic research on intellectual disability, an important application of intelligence research.Just FYI, one thing we will NOT consider in this unit but some of you will wonder about is developmental behavioral genetic research on intelligence. I promise that it will be covered in Unit 7.

...
8 vídeos ((Total 138 mín.)), 2 leituras, 1 teste
8 videos
6B: Twin, Adoption Studies, and The Heritability of General Cognitive Ability 12min
6C: Heritability and The Malleability of General Cognitive Ability 7min
6D: Gene-Environment Interplay In Studies of General Cognitive Ability 18min
6E: Why is general cognitive ability heritable? 17min
6F: Genetics of intellectual disability 21min
6G: The replication crisis - Supplementary 17min
Unit 6 Office Hours Video 28min
2 leituras
Required reading: Genetic association study of intelligence10min
Additional Resources for Topic #610min
1 exercício prático
Unit 6 Quiz 14min
Semana
7
3 horas para concluir

7

I am sure many of you wondered about the impact of age on biometric estimates when we discussed general cognitive ability last week. Indeed some of you asked about this issue on the Forums. You were right to raise the question because this is an important issue in the behavioral genetic literature. Given its importance, I thought it might work best to place the question of age moderation in a larger context, which we do this week. We will begin the week by returning to the distinction between shared and non-shared environmental influences, an important distinction in the behavioral genetic literature. You will see that while shared environmental influences are not important for most behavioral phenotypes, there are a few exceptions (including general cognitive ability). However, in all of these exceptional cases, the magnitude of shared environmental influences decreases with age as the heritability increases. To understand this developmental pattern, at least from a behavioral genetic perspective, it is helpful to consider mechanisms of gene-environment correlation as well as behavioral genetic perspectives on family socialization. We end this unit with an overview of behavioral genetic research on aging.

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8 vídeos ((Total 156 mín.)), 2 leituras, 1 teste
8 videos
7B: The Moderating Effect of Development 14min
7C: Gene-Environment Correlation 13min
7D: Family Socialization: A Behavioral Genetic Perspective 14min
7E: Gene-Environment Interaction II 20min
7F: Genetics and Aging 17min
7G: Epigenetics and twins - Supplementary 19min
Unit 7 Office Hours Video 41min
2 leituras
Required reading: Age differences in heritability of general cognitive ability10min
Additional resources Topic #710min
1 exercício prático
Unit 7 Quiz12min
Semana
8
3 horas para concluir

8

It is hard to believe we are already to the 8th and final week of the course. This unit begins with an overall summary of human behavioral genetic research organized around four general findings, or ‘laws’ of behavioral genetic research. We will then consider, I suppose more accurate speculate about, the application of behavioral genetic research in the field of individualized or genomic medicine and the implications of behavioral genetic research for personal responsibility. This week’s lectures will also include an interview with Professor Irving Gottesman, a pioneer in the field who undertook pioneering behavioral genetic research on schizophrenia and personality.

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8 vídeos ((Total 149 mín.)), 2 leituras, 1 teste
8 videos
8B: Behavior and Genomic Medicine 20min
8C: Behavioral Genetics, the Law and Personal Responsibility, Part I 17min
8D: Behavioral Genetics, the Law and Personal Responsibility, Part II 17min
8E: Gottesman Interview 27min
8F: Acknowledgements, Thank You, and Goodbye 5min
8G: Genetic prediction - Supplementary 18min
Unit 8 Office Hours Video 23min
2 leituras
Required reading: The (first) three laws of behavioral genetics10min
Additional resources for Topic #810min
1 exercício prático
Unit 8 Quiz10min
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Principais avaliações do Introdução à Genética Comportamental

por MMSep 13th 2018

It is an amazing course. After this course, my perspective towards genetics and psychology have changed. Many thanks to Professor Matt McGue. He has been one amazing guide, for the subject.

por PADec 20th 2017

Become obsessed with the subject of behavioral genetics and have decided to take a major regarding such field!! An absolutely stellar course!!

Instrutores

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Matt McGue

Regents Professor
Psychology

Sobre Universidade de MinnesotaUniversidade de Minnesota

The University of Minnesota is among the largest public research universities in the country, offering undergraduate, graduate, and professional students a multitude of opportunities for study and research. Located at the heart of one of the nation’s most vibrant, diverse metropolitan communities, students on the campuses in Minneapolis and St. Paul benefit from extensive partnerships with world-renowned health centers, international corporations, government agencies, and arts, nonprofit, and public service organizations....

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