And so, these kind of constraints we talked about.

Problem solving constraints, like how do we frame the problem?

What strategies do we use to solve the problem, to approach the problem?

Do you we not prematurely converge?

That is when we sort of stay apart and we stay open to other possible solutions, and

then do we persist?

Do we find ten different ways to solve a problem and

sort of choose the best from among them instead of only having

one tool on arrow in our quiver that we can use to solve the problem?

We want to have as many different ways, as possible.

So now let's talk about the constraints and

how it is overcoming these constraints, this intellection constraints.

So again, this is about how we think that we need to overcome those constraints.

Problem framing, that is how we draw the boundaries around the problem.

The problem solving strategies.

The ways that we use to attacking the problem, trying to understand it and

take it apart.

Premature convergence, making sure that we don't close too soon.

And then persistence,

how do we stop ourselves from not persisting having a lack of persistence.

Well, one thing to do is every time you get a problem is assume that you're not

given the problem in a way that's easy to solve.

That's why it's called a problem, because it's something that's not easy to solve.

Otherwise, you probably wouldn't have been given a problem.

And so, assume it's not given in a way that's easy to solve.

And so change how it's been formulated, reformulate the problem.

Formulate it in a number of different ways both in ways that are easy for

you to solve and also ways that are difficult for you to solve.

Another one, take multiple approaches to problem solving.

Like Niels Bohr did, he went from the asking the superintendent,

how tall the building is?

To measuring a shadow, to measuring this force of gravity, to hang a rope over

the edge, because we all be always different ways of solving the problem.

And you hold different ways that we can have upcoming towards a solution and

we can actually compare the answers that we get in a sort of see if we're in

a ballpark.

There are a number of tools that you can purchase called whack card,

whack them on the inside of the head cards.

This method cards from IDEO where they tell you to ask and learn and try and

[INAUDIBLE].

Different ways of framing problems.

Different ways of bringing the problem to you.

Recall from our introductory lecture that I did in the first week,

this Google Labs Aptitude Test.

These kinds of questions that Google was asking and they were really trying to get

you to balance from the one side of your brain to the other.

So remember, it was the problem of the dodecahedron.

How many different ways can you color an icosahedron with one of three colors

on each face?

That is a very difficult problem for people who are right brained, but

fairly straightforward for people who are left brained,

then we had this problem of improving upon emptiness.

Fill the square with something that improves upon emptiness and

that can be a very difficult problem for left brained people.

For right brained people, it's pretty straightforward.

You'll just improve upon emptiness, no problem.

And so here, what we can do what Google's trying to look for is say,

can we find people who can use both sides of their brain?

So, practice using both sides of your brain.