Course video 4 of 65

In this introductory lecture we discuss fundamental combinatorial constructions: we will see how to compute the number of words of fixed length in a given alphabet, the number of permutations of a finite set and the number of subsets with a given number of elements in a finite set. The latter numbers are called binomial coefficients; we will see how they appear in various combinatorial problems in this and forthcoming lectures. As an application of combinatorial methods, we also give a combinatorial proof of Fermat's little theorem.

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