了解如何提升工作效率和提高质量标准，学会分析和改善服务业或制造业商务流程。主要概念包括流程分析、瓶颈、流程速率和库存量等。成功完成本课程后，您可以运用所学技能处理现实商务挑战，这也是沃顿商学院商务基础专项课程的组成部分。

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From the course by University of Pennsylvania

运营管理概论（中文版）

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了解如何提升工作效率和提高质量标准，学会分析和改善服务业或制造业商务流程。主要概念包括流程分析、瓶颈、流程速率和库存量等。成功完成本课程后，您可以运用所学技能处理现实商务挑战，这也是沃顿商学院商务基础专项课程的组成部分。

From the lesson

第 3 单元 - 生产率

您将在本模块中学习生产力的主要构成。首先，课程将介绍生产力的学术定义，然后介绍常见阻碍生产力的因素、生产力的测量方法、效益指标、改进生产力技巧和经济价值。本模块教学结束后，您将掌握如何识别、描述和测量输入和输出之间的关系，您还将能够设计策略，减少输入和提高输出，从而提高生产率。

- Christian TerwieschAndrew M. Heller Professor at the Wharton School, Senior Fellow Leonard Davis Institute for Health Economics Co-Director, Mack Institute of Innovation Management

The Wharton School

Last session, we saw how small changes in operational variables can have big

financial rewards. One tool that helped us understand that

relationship between operational variables and financial variables is the KPI tree,

where KPI stands for Key Performance Indicators.

Kpi tree is a powerful way to visualize the relationship between the many

operational variables and the financial bottom line.

Kpi tree is also the starting point for a sensitivity analysis, that will formally

let us identify those operational variables that yield the biggest financial

improvements. Let's go back to our restaurant example

from the last session and see KPI trees in action.

The number that we care about in the restaurant is the daily profit.

What drives this profit? Profit is simply revenue minus cost.

What drives the revenue here? Revenue is driven by the flow rate, the

number of customers that we serve, times the dollars that we make per customer.

In our example, there was $six per customer.

Flow rate, in turn, is defined as a minimum between demand and capacity.

The capacity is driven by the bottleneck because that was a step with the lowest

capacity between stations one, two, and three.

In our case, station two was a bottleneck and that was, in turn, driven by the

processing time of station two which consisted of the time of putting the

onions on the sandwich, lettuce, tomato, everything else to boxing the napkin along

with the order. On the cost side of the business, we have

fixed and variable cost. The variable costs are driven simply by

the number of sandwiches that we make times the dollars per sandwich or the

dollars per order. These, in turns, are driven by the

ingredients in the sandwich, including the bread, the meat, the cheese, the

vegetables and again, everything all the way up to the napkin.

So, you can think of the KPI tree as basically one big mathematical equation

that combines the many variables that showed up in our spreadsheet analysis

before that ultimately drive profits, in one visual way.

Evaluating changes in the leaves of the tree and predicting the impact on profits

is the idea of sensitivity analysis. For example, we can ask ourselves, how

much more profits do we make if we can put the onions on the sandwich pasta?

How much more profit will we make if we reduce our fixed cost, if we would source

our bread any cheaper? Mathematically, this correspond to a

derivative. We take the partial derivative of profit

with respect to an operational variable. In practice, however, as we saw in the

previous session, evaluating the input of change is much easier and doesn't require

any Calculus. All we have to do is build an Excel

spreadsheet and evaluate the changes. Why was the impact of a productivity

change so big on profits? Think about our business from a financial

perspective. That's plot.

Revenue and cost is a function of flow rate, our revenue is not quite simple.

They go up at a slope of $six for every customer that we serve.

Our costs, however, are a little different.

Remember, that we have to pay $250 in terms of fixed cost, plus another $60 of

labor. This amount of money we have to spend even

if we don't sell any sandwiches. From then onwards, this line slopes up,

but now at a much lower slope than the revenue curve.

In fact, the slope is simply $1.50 per customer capturing our variable cost.

You see that here, we have a point at which we start making money.

This is typically called the breakeven point.

In our baseline analysis in the previous session, we noticed that we were just

beyond the breakeven point. We made a little bit of profit.

However, from then onwards, adding an additional customer through the system has

a very strong marginal effect. Every customer that we serve brings us

$4.50 that go right into the bottom line. Is seduce worth the squeeze?

Changing an operation is hard and there are many operation variables, that we

could focus on. The KPI tree is a powerful tool that helps

us identify those operations variables that we should focus on.

The KPI tree is also a powerful visual that helps us understand the causal system

that connects all these operational variables with the financial bottom line.

So, I suggest to you that you always start any operational improvement projects by

first, mapping out the process, drawing out the process flow diagram, then you do

the process analysis, calculating the operational variables that we introduced

in the first module, and then you build a KPI tree that help you understand how

these operational variables drive financial performance.

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